Cyber-Physical Wood Fabrication Platform

Research Project 4-1 (RP 4-1)


This research project aims to develop a semi-autonomous, off- and on-site, cyber-physical fabrication platform for a genuinely digital wood building system. It will address prevailing obstacles in timber construction such as low levels of automation (LoA) and transportation limitations by utilizing the concept of a modular, transportable, and extendable fabrication platform supported by Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) and custom Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs).

Requirements for this fabrication platform will be determined through continuous feedback from the building system development. The fabrication platform will account for construction site conditions, machine processing, human-machine interaction and the resulting safety considerations and interlink with the development of the cyber-physical construction system. The project will develop methods that enable the planning of continuous process interactions, comprehensive fabrication workflows, and the coordination between the geometric design of building parts (formulated in task descriptions) and their manufacturing conditions (formulated as feature descriptions).



Prof. Achim Menges
Institute for Computational Design and Construction (ICD), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alexander Verl
Institute for Control Engineering of Machine Tools and Manufacturing Units (ISW), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr. Daniel Weiskopf and Prof. Dr. Michael Sedlmair
Visualization Research Center (VISUS), University of Stuttgart


Dr.-Ing. Armin Lechler (ISW)
Dr. Felix Amtsberg (ICD)
Benjamin Kaiser (ISW)
Tobias Schwinn (ICD)
Aimée Sousa Calepso (VISUS)
Hans-Jakob Wagner (ICD)



  1. 2024

    1. Skoury, L., Treml, S., Opgenorth, N., Amtsberg, F., Wagner, H. J., Menges, A., & Wortmann, T. (2024). Towards data-informed co-design in digital fabrication. Automation in Construction, 158(November 2023), Article November 2023.
  2. 2023

    1. Amtsberg, F., Yang, X., Skoury, L., Sousa Calepso, A., Sedlmair, M., Wortmann, T., & Menges, A. (2023). Multi-Actor Fabrication for Digital Timber Construction. ECAADe Proceedings.
    2. Pathmanathan, N., Öney, S., Becher, M., Sedlmair, M., Weiskopf, D., & Kurzhals, K. (2023). Been There, Seen That: Visualization of Movement and 3D Eye Tracking Data from Real-World Environments. Computer Graphics Forum, 42(3), Article 3.
    3. Sherkat, S., Skoury, L., Wortmann, A., & Wortmann, T. (2023). Artificial Intelligence Automated Task Planning for Fabrication. In K. Dörfler, J. Knippers, A. Menges, S. Parascho, H. Pottmann, & T. Wortmann (Eds.), Advances in Architectural Geometry 2023 (pp. 249--260). De Gruyter.
    4. Wortmeier, A.-K., Calepso, A. S., Kropp, C., Sedlmair, M., & Weiskopf, D. (2023). Configuring augmented reality users: analysing YouTube commercials to understand industry expectations. Behaviour & Information Technology, 0(0), Article 0.
    5. Yang, X., Sousa Calepso, A., Amtsberg, F., Menges, A., & Sedlmair, M. (2023). Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Collaborative Fabrication between Multiple Humans and Industrial Robots. Proceedings of the 2023 ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction, 1–10.
    6. Öney, S., Pathmanathan, N., Becher, M., Sedlmair, M., Weiskopf, D., & Kurzhals, K. (2023). Visual Gaze Labeling for Augmented Reality Studies. Computer Graphics Forum, 42(3), Article 3.
  3. 2022

    1. Abdelaal, M., Amtsberg, F., Becher, M., Estrada, R. D., Kannenberg, F., Calepso, A. S., Wagner, H. J., Reina, G., Sedlmair, M., Menges, A., & Weiskopf, D. (2022). Visualization for Architecture, Engineering, and Construction: Shaping the Future of Our Built World. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 42(2), Article 2.
    2. Achberger, A., Arulrajah, P., Sedlmair, M., & Vidackovic, K. (2022). STROE: An Ungrounded String-Based Weight Simulation Device. IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR), 112–120.
    3. Achberger, A., Heyen, F., Vidackovic, K., & Sedlmair, M. (2022). Touching data with PropellerHand. Journal of Visualization.
    4. Chai, H., Guo, Z., Wagner, H. J., Stark, T., Menges, A., & Yuan, P. F. (2022). In-Situ Robotic Fabrication of Spatial Glulam Structures. Proceedings of the 27th CAADRIA Conference, Sydney, 9-15 April 2022, 2, 41--50.
    5. Fleck, P., Sousa Calepso, A., Hubenschmid, S., Sedlmair, M., & Schmalstieg, D. (2022). RagRug: A Toolkit for Situated Analytics. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.
    6. Kaiser, B., Wolf, M., & Verl, A. (2022). Modular Control Architecture for Reconfigurable Fabrication Systems for Prefabrication in Construction. ISR Europe 2022; 54th International Symposium on Robotics, 1–7.
    7. Skoury, L., Amtsberg, F., Yang, X., Wagner, H. J., Menges, A., & Wortmann, T. (2022). A Framework for Managing Data in Multi-actor Fabrication Processes (C. Gengnagel, O. Baverel, G. Betti, M. Popescu, M. R. Thomsen, & J. Wurm, Eds.).
    8. Sousa Calepso, A., Hube, N., Berenguel Senn, N., Brandt, V., & Sedlmair, M. (2022). cARdLearner: Using expressive Virtual Agents when learning vocabulary in Augmented Reality. ACM.
    9. Wolf, M., Kaiser, B., Hügle, S., Verl, A., & Middendorf, P. (2022). Data Model for Adaptive Robotic Construction in Architecture. Procedia CIRP, 107, 1035–1040.
    10. Yang, X., Amtsberg, F., Skoury, L., Wagner, H. J., & Menges, A. (2022). Vizor, Facilitating Cyber-physical Workflows in Prefabrication through Augmented Reality. CAADRIA Proceedings.
  4. 2021

    1. Achberger, A., Aust, F., Pohlandt, D., Vidackovic, K., & Sedlmair, M. (2021). STRIVE: String-Based Force Feedback for Automotive Engineering. ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), 841--853.
    2. Achberger, A., Heyen, F., Vidackovic, K., & Sedlmair, M. (2021). PropellerHand: A Hand-Mounted, Propeller-Based Force Feedback Device. International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction (VINCI), 4:1--4:8.
    3. Amtsberg, F., Yang, X., Skoury, L., Wagner, H.-J., & Menges, A. (2021). iHRC: An AR-based interface for intuitive, interactive and coordinated task sharing between humans and robots in building construction. In C. Feng, T. Linner, I. Brilakis, D. Castro, P.-H. Chen, Y. Cho, J. Du, S. Ergan, B. Garcia de Soto, J. Gašparík, F. Habbal, A. Hammad, K. Iturralde, T. Bock, S. Kwon, Z. Lafhaj, N. Li, C.-J. Liang, B. Mantha, … Z. Zhu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC) (pp. 25–32). International Association for Automation and Robotics in Construction (IAARC).
    4. Ellwein, C., Reichle, A., Herschel, M., & Verl, A. (2021). Integrative data processing for cyber-physical off-site and on-site construction promoting co-design. Procedia CIRP, 100, 451–456.
    5. Orozco, L., Krtschil, A., Wagner, H. J., Bechert, S., Amtsberg, F., Skoury, L., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2021). Design Methods for Variable Density, Multi-Directional Composite Timber Slab Systems for Multi-Storey. In V. Stojakovic & B. Tepavcevic (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th eCAADe Conference (Vol. 1, pp. 303--312). Cumincad.
    6. Qi, Y., Zhong, R., Kaiser, B., Tahouni, Y., Wagner, H. J., Verl, A., & Menges, A. (2021). Augmented Accuracy: A Human-Machine Integrated Adaptive Fabrication Workflow for Bamboo. In V. Stojakovic & B. Tepavcevic (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th eCAADe Conference (Vol. 1, pp. 345--354). Cumincad.
  5. 2020

    1. Merino, L., Schwarzl, M., Kraus, M., Sedlmair, M., Schmalstieg, D., & Weiskopf, D. (2020). Evaluating Mixed and Augmented Reality: A Systematic Literature Review (2009 -- 2019). IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR).
    2. Qi, Y., Zhong, R., Kaiser, B., Nguyen, L., Wagner, H. J., Verl, A., & Menges, A. (2020). Working with Uncertainties: An Adaptive Fabrication Workflow for Bamboo Structures. In P. F. Yuan, J. Yao, C. Yan, X. Wang, & N. Leach (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2020 DigitalFUTURES. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
    3. Wagner, H. J., Alvarez, M., Groenewolt, A., & Menges, A. (2020). Towards digital automation flexibility in large-scale timber construction: integrative robotic prefabrication and co-design of the BUGA Wood Pavilion. Construction Robotics.
    4. Wagner, H. J., Alvarez, M., Kyjanek, O., Bhiri, Z., Buck, M., & Menges, A. (2020). Flexible and transportable robotic timber construction platform – TIM. Automation in Construction, 120, Article 120.
    5. Wagner, H. J., Chai, H., Guo, Z., Menges, A., & Yuan, P. F. (2020). Towards an On-site Fabrication System for Bespoke , Unlimited and Monolithic Timber Slabs. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) Las Vegas, NV, USA (Virtual) - Workshop on Construction and Architecture Robotics, 2020.
    6. Weiß, M., Angerbauer, K., Voit, A., Schwarzl, M., Sedlmair, M., & Mayer, S. (2020). Revisited: Comparison of Empirical Methods to Evaluate Visualizations Supporting Crafting and Assembly Purposes. IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG, Proc. InfoVis 2020).


  1. 2022

    1. Wagner, H. J. (2022). Digitale Fabrikation: Was bringt uns die Zukunft? In 2. Internationaler Kongress Holzbau: Technik+Wirtschaft (HTW) (pp. 91--102). FORUM HOLZBAU.
    2. Chai, H., Wagner, H. J., Guo, Z., Qi, Y., Menges, A., & Yuan, P. F. (2022). Computational design and on-site mobile robotic construction of an adaptive reinforcement beam network for cross-laminated timber slab panels. Automation in Construction, 142(August), Article August.


  1. 2022

    1. Abdelaal, M., Schiele, N. D., Angerbauer, K., Kurzhals, K., Sedlmair, M., & Weiskopf, D. (2022). Supplemental Materials for: Comparative Evaluation of Bipartite, Node-Link, and Matrix-Based Network Representations. DaRUS.
    2. Wortmeier, A.-K., Calepso, A. S., Kropp, C., Sedlmair, M., & Weiskopf, D. (2022). Replication Data for BauHCI Video Analysis. DaRUS.
  2. 2021

    1. Kaiser, B. (2021). Replication data for: Planning of Curvature-Optimal Smooth Paths for Industrial Robots Using Neural Networks.


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