Hybrid FRP-Timber Building System and Material System Development

Research Project 11-2 (RP 11-2)

Weiße Schrift


Conceived as the extension project of the first phase RP11, this project will address the fundamental research challenges that were encountered during the first stage of development of novel coreless filament wound fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) building systems. Three main challenges were identified and formalized: the weakness of such systems in creating continuous surfaces and therefore, to properly enclose a space, the relatively long production time of the construction elements and, ultimately, the heavy environmental footprint of the materials predominantly used. One of the main consequences of the filigree or lattice-like configuration of coreless filament wound fibre elements, is their inherent inability to create continuous surfaces and therefore to define hermetic architectural spaces. This project will focus on solutions addressing this shortcoming by combining the lattice-arranged filaments with two-dimensional timber plates by means of mechanical fasteners. Design space explorations for such FRP-timber hybrid components, catering to their architectural function while at the same time enhancing their structural capabilities with timber plates redistributing live loads and fibres providing structural depth to the system will be carried out in this project. From a fabrication standpoint, the timber plates can potentially become an integral part of the winding frame, reducing the complexity in the overall fabrication setup. This reduction in complexity will be the first step towards the goal of abating the overall production time. Such goal will also be pursued by employing two robots to simultaneously wind one element. Central aspect of this research project will then be the exploration of the design space for FRP-timber hybrid elements enabled by the augmentation of the fabrication platform. To address the issue of the heavy environmental footprint of materials so far used for coreless filament wound elements, this project will investigate alternative combinations of fibre (natural, renewable or semisynthetic) and resin systems on the base of the preliminary studies carried out during the first phase of RP11. The goal of this project will be to expand options of materials suitable for CFW, as well as to define sensible fibre-resin material combinations for specific building elements geometries and configurations.


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jan Knippers
Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Achim Menges
Institute for Computational Design and Construction (ICD), University of Stuttgart


Tzu-Ying Chen (ITKE)
Rebeca Duque (ICD)
Christoph Zechmeister (ICD)
Marta Gil Pérez (ITKE)



  1. 2023

    1. Gil Pérez, M. (2023). Integrative structural design of non-standard building systems: coreless filament-wound structures as a case study (Vol. 49) [Dissertation, Institut für Tragkonstruktionen und Konstruktives Entwerfen, Universität Stuttgart]. https://doi.org/10.18419/opus-12879
    2. Gil Pérez, M., & Knippers, J. (2023). Integrative Structural Design of Non-Standard Building Systems: Bridging the Gap between Research and Industry. Technology  Architecture + Design, 7:2, 244–260. https://doi.org/10.1080/24751448.2023.2246801
    3. Schlopschnat, C., Pérez, M. G., Zechmeister, C., Estrada, R. D., Kannenberg, F., Rinderspacher, K., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2023). Co-Design of Fibrous Walls for Multi-Story Buildings. In K. Dörfler, J. Knippers, A. Menges, S. Parascho, H. Pottmann, & T. Wortmann (Eds.), Advances in Architectural Geometry 2023 (pp. 235--248). De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111162683-018
    4. Zechmeister, C., Gil Pérez, M., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2023). Concurrent, computational design and modelling of structural, coreless-wound building components. Automation in Construction, 151, 104889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2023.104889
    5. Zechmeister, C., Gil Pérez, M., Dambrosio, N., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2023). Extension of Computational Co-Design Methods for Modular, Prefabricated Composite Building Components Using Bio-Based Material Systems. Sustainability, 15(16), Article 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151612189
  2. 2022

    1. Balangé, L., Harmening, C., Duque Estrada, R., Menges, A., Neuner, H., & Schwieger, V. (2022). Monitoring the production process of lightweight fibrous structures using terrestrial laser scanning. 5th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring, Valencia, Spain. https://doi.org/10.4995/JISDM2022.2022.13830
    2. Gil Pérez, M., Zechmeister, C., Kannenberg, F., Mindermann, P., Balangé, L., Guo, Y., Hügle, S., Gienger, A., Forster, D., Bischoff, M., Tarín, C., Middendorf, P., Schwieger, V., Gresser, G. T., Menges, A., & Knippers, J. (2022). Computational co-design framework for coreless wound fibre-polymer composite structures. Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, 9(2), Article 2. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcde/qwab081
    3. Gil Pérez, M., Früh, N., La Magna, R., & Knippers, J. (2022). Integrative structural design of a timber-fibre hybrid building system fabricated through coreless filament winding: Maison Fibre. Journal of Building Engineering, 49, 104114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2022.104114
    4. Gil Pérez, M., Guo, Y., & Knippers, J. (2022). Integrative material and structural design methods for natural fibres filament-wound composite structures: The LivMatS pavilion. Materials & Design, 217, 110624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110624
    5. Gil Pérez, M., Zechmeister, C., Menges, A., & Knippers, J. (2022). Coreless filament-wound structures: toward performative long-span and sustainable building systems. In S. Xue, J. Wu, & G. Sun (Eds.), Proceedings of IASS Annual Symposia 2022: Innovation, Sustainability and Legacy (Vol. 2022, pp. 3366–3376). International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS).
    6. Guo, Y., Gil Pérez, M., Serhat, G., & Knippers, J. (2022). A design methodology for fiber layup optimization of filament wound structural components. Structures, 38, 1125--1136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2022.02.048
    7. Guo, Y., Serhat, G., Gil Pérez, M., & Knippers, J. (2022). Maximizing buckling load of elliptical composite cylinders using lamination parameters. Engineering Structures, 262, 114342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2022.114342
    8. Mindermann, P., Gil Pérez, M., Kamimura, N., Knippers, J., & Gresser, G. T. (2022). Implementation of fiber-optical sensors into coreless filament-wound composite structures. Composite Structures, 290, 115558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2022.115558
    9. Mindermann, P., Pérez, M. G., Knippers, J., & Gresser, G. T. (2022). Investigation of the Fabrication Suitability, Structural Performance, and Sustainability of Natural Fibers in Coreless Filament Winding. Materials, 15(9), Article 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093260
  3. 2021

    1. Bodea, S., Mindermann, P., Gresser, G. T., & Menges, A. (2021). Additive Manufacturing of Large Coreless Filament Wound Composite Elements for Building Construction. 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing. https://doi.org/10.1089/3dp.2020.0346
    2. Dambrosio, N., Zechmeister, N., Duque Estrada, R., Kannenberg, F., Gil Pérez, M., Schlopschnat, C., Rinderspacher, K., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2021). Design and development of an FRP-Timber hybrid building system for multi-story applications in architecture: Maison Fibre. In B. Farahi, B. Bogosian, J. Scott, J. L. García del Castillo y López, K. Dörfler, J. A. Grant, S. Parascho, & V. A. A. Noel (Eds.), Realignments: Toward Critical Computation - ACADIA 2021.
    3. Gil Pérez, M., Rongen, B., Koslowski, V., & Knippers, J. (2021). Structural design assisted by testing for modular coreless filament-wound composites: The BUGA Fibre Pavilion. Construction and Building Materials, 301, 124303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124303
    4. Mindermann, P., Bodea, S., Menges, A., & Gresser, G. T. (2021). Development of an Impregnation End-Effector with Fiber Tension Monitoring for Robotic Coreless Filament Winding. Processes, 9(5), 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr905080
    5. Mindermann, P., Rongen, B., Gubetini, D., Knippers, J., & Gresser, G. T. (2021). Material Monitoring of a Composite Dome Pavilion Made by Robotic Coreless Filament Winding. Materials, 14(19), Article 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195509
  4. 2020

    1. Bodea, S., Dambrosio, N., Zechmeister, C., Gil-Perez, M., Koslowski, V., Rongen, B., Doerstelmann, M., Kyjanek, O., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2020). BUGA Fibre Pavilion: Towards Robotically-Fabricated Composite Building Structures. Fabricate 2020: Making Resilient Architecture, 234--243.
    2. Gil Pérez, M., Rongen, B., Koslowski, V., & Knippers, J. (2020). Structural design, optimization and detailing of the BUGA fibre pavilion. International Journal of Space Structures, 0(0), Article 0. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956059920961778
    3. Zechmeister, C., Bodea, S., Dambrosio, N., & Menges, A. (2020). Design for Long-Span Core-Less Wound, Structural Composite Building Elements. In C. Gengnagel, O. Baverel, & J. Burry (Eds.), Proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium, Berlin 2019 (pp. 401--415). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29829-6_32
  5. 2019

    1. Dambrosio, N., Zechmeister, C., Bodea, S., Koslowski, V., Gil Pérez, M., Rongen, B., Knippers, J., & Menges, A. (2019). Buga Fibre Pavilion: Towards an architectural application of novel  fiber composite building systems. In K. Bieg, D. Briscoe, & C. Odom (Eds.), Acadia 2019: Ubiquity and Autonomy, proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, Texas (pp. 140--149). Acadia Publishing Company.
    2. Gil Pérez, M., Dambrosio, N., Rongen, B., Menges, A., & Knippers, J. (2019). Structural optimization of coreless filament wound components connection system through orientation of anchor points in the winding frames. In C. Lazaro, K.-U. Bletzinger, & E. Onate (Eds.), Proceedings of the IASS Annual Symposium 2019 – Structural Membranes 2019 Form and Force (Vol. 2019, pp. 1381--1388). International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS).


  1. 2021

    1. Iori, T. (2021). La Maison Fibre o del robot Aracne che fila la casa del futuro. Rassegna di Architettura e Urbanistica, 164, Article 164.
    2. Speight, V. (2021). La fibre robotique. Hors Site Magazine.


  1. 2023

    1. Gil Pérez, M., Mindermann, P., Zechmeister, C., Forster, D., Guo, Y., Hügle, S., Kannenberg, F., Balangé, L., Schwieger, V., Middendorf, P., Bischoff, M., Menges, A., Gresser, G. T., & Knippers, J. (2023). Post-processed and normalized data sets for the data processing, analysis, and evaluation methods for co-design of coreless filament-wound structures. DaRUS. https://doi.org/10.18419/darus-3449
    2. Gil Pérez, M., Zechmeister, C., Kannenberg, F., Mindermann, P., Balangé, L., Guo, Y., Hügle, S., Gienger, A., Forster, D., Bischoff, M., Tarín, C., Middendorf, P., Schwieger, V., Gresser, G. T., Menges, A., & Knippers, J. (2023). Object model data sets of the case study specimens for the computational co-design framework for coreless wound fibre-polymer composite structures. DaRUS. https://doi.org/10.18419/darus-3375


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