Functionally Graded Concrete Building System

Research Project 1-1 (RP 1-1)


In this research project, a functionally graded concrete (FGC) building system will be developed that is resource efficient regarding load-bearing capacity under the consideration of requirements specific to multi-storey buildings.

Methods for design and production of concrete structures that fulfil their functions with minimum material used will be developed by synthesizing knowledge in the fields of materials science, structural engineering and production processes. The work will include the conceptual development of FGC building system and the evaluation of its overall performance for load transfer and building physics. Methods for the optimization of components interior, optimized load-adapted joints and the integration of reinforcement will be developed regarding fabrication processes, logistics, and construction tolerances. Components will be produced and tested throughout the project to evaluate their load-bearing behavior as well as their building physics performance. The flexibility of the system will be evaluated on the design and production of the demonstrator building.

The development will include design methods, structural systems, building services and building physics as well as joint systems in tight cooperation with cyber-physical fabrication of functionally graded concrete, co-design of multi-storey timber buildings, onsite cyber-physical construction platforms and robotic platform for cyber-physical assembly as well as holistic quality model.



Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Werner Sobek 
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lucio Blandini
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Garrecht 
Institute of Construction Materials (IWB), University of Stuttgart


Dr.-Ing. Walter Haase (ILEK)
Rafael Garcia (VISUS)
Oliver Gericke (ILEK)
Carl Haufe (ILEK)
Daria Kovaleva (ILEK)
Piotr Lazik (IWB)
David Nigl (ILEK)
Alexander Teichmann (IWB)



  1. 2023

    1. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., Nigl, D., Blandini, L., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Modelling, Feedforward Control and Constrained Trajectory Generation for a Concrete Conveyance System. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control.
    2. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Dynamics of Path Following and Constrained Path Synchronization Applied to Graded Concrete Element Fabrication.
    3. Blagojevic, B., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Path Planning for Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. Construction Robotics.
    4. Blandini, L., Kovaleva, D., Haufe, C. N., Nething, C., Nigl, D., Nitzlader, M., Smirnova, M., Strahm, B., Bosch, M., Funaro, D., & Nistler, M. (2023). Leicht bauen mit Beton – ausgewählte Forschungsarbeiten des ILEK – Teil 2: Strukturleichtbau. Beton- Und Stahlbetonbau, 118(5), Article 5.
    5. Blandini, L., Kovaleva, D., Nething, C., Nigl, D., Smirnova, M., Strahm, B., Eppinger, E., & Teichmann, A. (2023). Leicht bauen mit Beton – ausgewählte Forschungsarbeiten des ILEK – Teil 1: Materialleichtbau. Beton- Und Stahlbetonbau, 118(5), Article 5.
    6. Haufe, C. N., Nigl, D., & Blandini, L. (2023). Investigations On The Load-bearing Behaviour Of Continuous Functionally Graded Concrete Beams: Vol. Proceedings of the International fib Symposium on the Conceptual Design of Concrete Structures held in Oslo, Norway (F. I. du Béton – International Federation for Structural Concrete, Ed.). Fédération Internationale du Béton – International Federation for Structural Concrete.
  2. 2022

    1. Blandini, L. (2022). Lightweight and Sustainable Concrete Structures: The ILEK Research Strategy. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    2. Frost, D., Gericke, O., Di Bari, R., Balangé, L., Zhang, L., Blagojevic, B., Nigl, D., Haag, P., Blandini, L., Jünger, H. C., Kropp, C., Leistner, P., Sawodny, O., Schwieger, V., & Sobek, W. (2022). Holistic Quality Model and Assessment—Supporting Decision-Making towards Sustainable Construction Using the Design and Production of Graded Concrete Components as an Example. Sustainability, 14(18), Article 18.
    3. Gericke, O., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Rigid Implant Connections for Thin-Walled Concrete Beams. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    4. Miller, O., Gericke, O., Nigl, D., Kovaleva, D., & Blandini, L. (2022). Simulation-Based Investigations of the Load-Bearing Behavior of Concrete Hollow Sphere Slabs Exposed to Fire. Fire, 5(6), Article 6.
    5. Nigl, D., Gericke, O., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Numerical investigations on the biaxial load-bearing behaviour of graded concrete slabs. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
  3. 2021

    1. Yang, Y., Balangé, L., Gericke, O., Schmeer, D., Zhang, L., Sobek, W., & Schwieger, V. (2021). Monitoring of the Production Process of Graded Concrete Component Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing, 13(9), Article 9.


  1. 2020

    1. Alhamdani, I. A. H. (2020). Investigation of the web layout in thin-walled hollow core slabs made from carbon fibre reinforced concrete.
    2. Sahin, A. (2020). Investigations on transferring tensile forces out of thin-walled concrete components.
    3. Trunzer, P. (2020). Investigation on modular sand formwork for the waste-free production of concrete components.
    4. Vorholzer, M. (2020). Investigations of connections and supports of concrete slabs in multi-storey buildings with regard to resulting mass saving potentials.
    5. Yang, Y. (2020). Investigation for position determination of hollow sphere integrated in concrete components during component production.
    6. Zhang, H. (2020). Development of an implant for the optimised support of prefabricated slabs made of fibre-reinforced concrete.


  1. 2024

    1. Strahm, B., Haufe, C., & Blandini, L. (2024). Replication Data for: Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Shear Load-Bearing Behavior of Functionally Graded Concrete Components. DaRUS.
  2. 2023

    1. Teichmann, A., Strahm, B., Garrecht, H., & Blandini, L. (2023). Compressive strength measurement data. DaRUS.


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