Cyber-Physical Fabrication of Functionally Graded Concrete

Research Project 2-1 (RP 2-1)


The project concerns the development of a fabrication platform for functionally graded concrete components developed in Research Project 1 that are optimized towards resource efficiency with regard to loadbearing capacity under consideration of requirements specific to multi-storey buildings.

Based on the requirements on geometrical, mechanical, building physics requirements from Research Project 1, the work will focus on the conceptualization of the overall design-to-production process chain, definition of production processes for internal gradients, joints, external formwork as well as casting and assembly systems. The process integrates digital implementations of methods for design and optimization with physical processes - such as finely tuned mixing of high-performance concrete and its precise extrusion - as well as digital methods for process planning and control.

The overall requirement is to minimize the weight of components, extend the possibilities of fabrication to on-site application, and minimize the environmental impact of their manufacture in order to meet today's social and ecological challenges and to ensure the creation of an environment worth living in for future generations.

The project will be conducted in tight cooperation with co-design of functionally graded concrete building system, onsite cyber-physical construction platforms and robotic platform for cyber-physical assembly as well as holistic quality model.



Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Garrecht
Institute of Construction Materials (IWB), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Werner Sobek
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lucio Blandini
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Oliver Sawodny
Institute for System Dynamics (ISYS), University of Stuttgart


Dr.-Ing. Walter Haase (ILEK)
Boris Blagojevic (ISYS)
Oliver Gericke (ILEK)
Daria Kovaleva (ILEK)
Alexander Teichmann (IWB)



  1. 2023

    1. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., Nigl, D., Blandini, L., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Modelling, Feedforward Control and Constrained Trajectory Generation for a Concrete Conveyance System. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control.
    2. Blagojevic, B., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Path Planning for Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. Construction Robotics.
  2. 2022

    1. Blandini, L. (2022). Lightweight and Sustainable Concrete Structures: The ILEK Research Strategy. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    2. Frost, D., Gericke, O., Di Bari, R., Balangé, L., Zhang, L., Blagojevic, B., Nigl, D., Haag, P., Blandini, L., Jünger, H. C., Kropp, C., Leistner, P., Sawodny, O., Schwieger, V., & Sobek, W. (2022). Holistic Quality Model and Assessment—Supporting Decision-Making towards Sustainable Construction Using the Design and Production of Graded Concrete Components as an Example. Sustainability, 14(18), Article 18.
  3. 2021

    1. Blagojevic, B., Schönemann, B., Schmeer, D., Nigl, D., Blandini, L., & Sawodny, O. (2021). Trajectory Planning for Concrete Element Fabrication with Optimal Control. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Conference of the IEEE IES (IECON).
    2. Lauer, A. P. R., Blagojevic, B., Lerke, O., Schwieger, V., & Sawodny, O. (2021). Flexible Multibody System Model of a Spider Crane with two Extendable Booms. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Conference on the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON).
    3. Yang, Y., Balangé, L., Gericke, O., Schmeer, D., Zhang, L., Sobek, W., & Schwieger, V. (2021). Monitoring of the Production Process of Graded Concrete Component Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing, 13(9), Article 9.


  1. 2022

    1. Kovaleva, D., Nistler, M., Verl, A., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Zero-waste Production of Lightweight Concrete Structures with Water-Soluble Sand Formwork. Proceedings of the 3rd RILEM International Conference on Digital Fabrication with Concrete (Digital Concrete 2022).
  2. 2021

    1. Blagojevic, B., Nitsche, A., & Sawodny, O. (2021). Modeling of transient incompressible concrete mass flow through a hose.
  3. 2020

    1. Yang, Y. (2020). Investigation for position determination of hollow sphere integrated in concrete components during component production.



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