Cyber-Physical Fabrication of Functionally Graded Concrete Components

Research Project 2-1 (RP 2-1)


The project concerns the development of a fabrication platform for functionally graded concrete components (Research Project RP 1-1), which are optimised for resource efficiency in terms of load-bearing capacity, taking into account the specific requirements for multi-storey buildings.

Based on the geometric, mechanical and building physics requirements from Research Project RP 1-1, the work will focus on conceptualising the overall design-to-production process chain, defining production processes for internal gradients, joints, external formwork, and casting and assembly systems. The process integrates digital implementations of design and optimisation methods with physical processes – such as fine-tuned mixing of high-performance concrete and its precise extrusion – and digital methods for process planning and control.

The overall requirement is to minimise the weight of the components, to extend the capabilities of fabrication to on-site application and to minimise the environmental impact of their manufacture in order to meet today's social and ecological challenges and to ensure the creation of a liveable environment for future generations.

The project will be carried out in close collaboration with the Research Projects Co-Design of Functionally Graded Concrete Building System (RP 1-1), Cyber-Physical Construction Platform (RP 8-1), robotic platform for cyber-physical assembly (RP 16-1) and Holistic Quality Model (RP 18-1).



Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Garrecht
Institute of Construction Materials (IWB), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Werner Sobek
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lucio Blandini
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Oliver Sawodny
Institute for System Dynamics (ISYS), University of Stuttgart


Dr.-Ing. Walter Haase (ILEK)
Boris Blagojevic (ISYS)
Oliver Gericke (ILEK)
Daria Kovaleva (ILEK)
Alexander Teichmann (IWB)



  1. 2023

    1. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., Nigl, D., Blandini, L., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Modelling, Feedforward Control and Constrained Trajectory Generation for a Concrete Conveyance System. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control.
    2. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Dynamics of Path Following and Constrained Path Synchronization Applied to Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. 2023 IEEE 19th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 1–6.
    3. Blagojevic, B., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Path Planning for Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. Construction Robotics.
  2. 2022

    1. Blandini, L. (2022). Lightweight and Sustainable Concrete Structures: The ILEK Research Strategy. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    2. Frost, D., Gericke, O., Di Bari, R., Balangé, L., Zhang, L., Blagojevic, B., Nigl, D., Haag, P., Blandini, L., Jünger, H. C., Kropp, C., Leistner, P., Sawodny, O., Schwieger, V., & Sobek, W. (2022). Holistic Quality Model and Assessment—Supporting Decision-Making towards Sustainable Construction Using the Design and Production of Graded Concrete Components as an Example. Sustainability, 14(18), Article 18.
  3. 2021

    1. Blagojevic, B., Nitsche, A., & Sawodny, O. (2021). Modeling of transient incompressible concrete mass flow through a hose. 2021 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA), 424–429.
    2. Blagojevic, B., Schönemann, B., Nigl, D., Blandini, L., & Sawodny, O. (2021). Trajectory Planning for Concrete Element Fabrication with Optimal Control. IECON 2021 - 47th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 1–6.
    3. Lauer, A. P. R., Blagojevic, B., Lerke, O., Schwieger, V., & Sawodny, O. (2021). Flexible Multibody System Model of a Spider Crane with two Extendable Booms. IECON 2021 - 47th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society.
    4. Yang, Y., Balangé, L., Gericke, O., Schmeer, D., Zhang, L., Sobek, W., & Schwieger, V. (2021). Monitoring of the Production Process of Graded Concrete Component Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing, 13(9), Article 9.


  1. 2022

    1. Kovaleva, D., Nistler, M., Verl, A., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Zero-waste Production of Lightweight Concrete Structures with Water-Soluble Sand Formwork. Proceedings of the 3rd RILEM International Conference on Digital Fabrication with Concrete (Digital Concrete 2022).
  2. 2020

    1. Yang, Y. (2020). Investigation for position determination of hollow sphere integrated in concrete components during component production.



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