Functionally Graded Concrete Building System – Design, Optimisation, Digital Production and Reuse

Research Project 1-2 (RP 1-2)

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Based on the outcomes of the first funding period, this project focuses on the further development of the functionally graded concrete (FGC) building system aiming towards a more drastic reduc- tion of natural resource consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and waste volume. The strategy is based on the application of recycling and reuse as the core principles of the circular economy, as well as through the extension of digital design and automated fabrication methods.

Currently, the major part of concrete waste from the demolition of buildings is downcycled for use in road construction [27]. Through the use of recycled aggregates in concrete mixtures a closed recycling loop can be established. To enlarge its application, mixture designs for eco-self-com- pacting concrete (ECO-SCC) using recycled aggregates and alternative binders will be investi- gated for use in functionally graded concrete components. The challenge of maintaining the re- quired characteristics for such altered Mix-Designs will be addressed by implementing inherent observation and control methods during production.

Extending the principle of a closed-loop from the material to the component level, the research will focus on segmented and demountable functionally graded concrete slabs. This approach allows for a slab system in which elements can be recovered after selective dismantling of struc- tures and subsequently be reused elsewhere.

Further, the digital design and fabrication processes will be extended. This comprises an auto- mated production process for weight-optimised components by the implementation of a digital casting technology with simulative and experimental investigations. Moreover, a design tool for the preliminary design and detailed structural analysis of functionally graded concrete slabs will be established. The tool will be complemented by interfaces to the holistic quality assessment as well as to the automated production of functionally graded concrete components.

[27]  A. Rosen, “Urban Mining Index: Entwicklung einer Systematik zur quantitativen Bewertung der Kreislaufkonsistenz von Baukonstruktionen in der Neubauplanung,” Dissertation, Stuttgart, 2021. 


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lucio Blandini
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Garrecht 
Institute of Construction Materials (IWB), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Oliver Sawodny
Institute for System Dynamics (ISYS), University of Stuttgart


Dr.-Ing. Walter Haase (ILEK)
Benedikt Strahm (ILEK)
Carl Haufe (ILEK)
David Nigl (ILEK)
Alexander Teichmann (IWB)
Boris Blagojevic (ISYS)




  1. 2023

    1. Blagojevic, B., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Path Planning for Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. Construction Robotics.
  2. 2022

    1. Blandini, L. (2022). Lightweight and Sustainable Concrete Structures: The ILEK Research Strategy. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    2. Frost, D., Gericke, O., Di Bari, R., Balangé, L., Zhang, L., Blagojevic, B., Nigl, D., Haag, P., Blandini, L., Jünger, H. C., Kropp, C., Leistner, P., Sawodny, O., Schwieger, V., & Sobek, W. (2022). Holistic Quality Model and Assessment—Supporting Decision-Making towards Sustainable Construction Using the Design and Production of Graded Concrete Components as an Example. Sustainability, 14(18), Article 18.
    3. Gericke, O., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Rigid Implant Connections for Thin-Walled Concrete Beams. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    4. Miller, O., Gericke, O., Nigl, D., Kovaleva, D., & Blandini, L. (2022). Simulation-Based Investigations of the Load-Bearing Behavior of Concrete Hollow Sphere Slabs Exposed to Fire. Fire, 5(6), Article 6.
    5. Nigl, D., Gericke, O., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Numerical investigations on the biaxial load-bearing behaviour of graded concrete slabs. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
  3. 2021

    1. Yang, Y., Balangé, L., Gericke, O., Schmeer, D., Zhang, L., Sobek, W., & Schwieger, V. (2021). Monitoring of the Production Process of Graded Concrete Component Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing, 13(9), Article 9.


  1. 2020

    1. Alhamdani, I. A. H. (2020). Investigation of the web layout in thin-walled hollow core slabs made from carbon fibre reinforced concrete.
    2. Sahin, A. (2020). Investigations on transferring tensile forces out of thin-walled concrete components.
    3. Trunzer, P. (2020). Investigation on modular sand formwork for the waste-free production of concrete components.
    4. Vorholzer, M. (2020). Investigations of connections and supports of concrete slabs in multi-storey buildings with regard to resulting mass saving potentials.
    5. Yang, Y. (2020). Investigation for position determination of hollow sphere integrated in concrete components during component production.
    6. Zhang, H. (2020). Development of an implant for the optimised support of prefabricated slabs made of fibre-reinforced concrete.



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