Functionally Graded Concrete Building System – Design, Optimisation, Digital Production and Reuse

Research Project 1-2 (RP 1-2)


Building on the results of the first funding period (RP 1-1), this project focuses on the further development of the functionally graded concrete (FGC) building system to achieve a more drastic reduction in natural resource consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and waste volumes. The strategy is based on the application of recycling and reuse as the core principles of the circular economy, as well as the extension of digital design and automated fabrication methods.

Currently, the majority of concrete waste from building demolition is down-cycled for use in road construction [1]. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete mixtures can establish a closed recycling loop. To extend its application, mixture designs for eco-selfcompacting concrete (ECO-SCC) using recycled aggregates and alternative binders are being investigated for use in functionally graded concrete components. The challenge of maintaining the required characteristics for such modified mix-designs will be addressed by implementing in-process monitoring and control methods.

Extending the closed-loop principle from the material to the component level, the research will focus on segmented and demountable functionally graded concrete slabs. This approach allows for a slab system where elements can be recovered after selective dismantling of structures and subsequently be reused elsewhere.

Digital design and fabrication processes are also being expanded. This includes an automated production process for weight-optimised components through the implementation of a digital casting technology with simulative and experimental investigations. In addition, a design tool for the preliminary design and detailed structural analysis of functionally graded concrete slabs will be established. The tool will be complemented by interfaces for holistic quality assessment and to the automated production of functionally graded concrete components.

[1] A. Rosen, “Urban Mining Index: Entwicklung einer Systematik zur quantitativen Bewertung der Kreislaufkonsistenz von Baukonstruktionen in der Neubauplanung,” Dissertation, Stuttgart, 2021. 


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Lucio Blandini
Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design (ILEK), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Garrecht 
Institute of Construction Materials (IWB), University of Stuttgart
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Oliver Sawodny
Institute for System Dynamics (ISYS), University of Stuttgart


Dr.-Ing. Walter Haase (ILEK)
Benedikt Strahm (ILEK)
Carl Niklas Haufe (ILEK)
Noëlle Houriez (ISYS)
David Nigl (ILEK)
Alexander Teichmann (IWB)
Boris Blagojevic (ISYS)




  1. 2023

    1. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., Nigl, D., Blandini, L., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Modelling, Feedforward Control and Constrained Trajectory Generation for a Concrete Conveyance System. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control.
    2. Blagojevic, B., Gienger, A., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Dynamics of Path Following and Constrained Path Synchronization Applied to Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. 2023 IEEE 19th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 1–6.
    3. Blagojevic, B., & Sawodny, O. (2023). Path Planning for Graded Concrete Element Fabrication. Construction Robotics.
    4. Blandini, L., Kovaleva, D., Haufe, C. N., Nething, C., Nigl, D., Nitzlader, M., Smirnova, M., Strahm, B., Bosch, M., Funaro, D., & Nistler, M. (2023). Leicht bauen mit Beton – ausgewählte Forschungsarbeiten des ILEK – Teil 2: Strukturleichtbau. Beton- Und Stahlbetonbau, 118(5), Article 5.
    5. Blandini, L., Kovaleva, D., Nething, C., Nigl, D., Smirnova, M., Strahm, B., Eppinger, E., & Teichmann, A. (2023). Leicht bauen mit Beton – ausgewählte Forschungsarbeiten des ILEK – Teil 1: Materialleichtbau. Beton- Und Stahlbetonbau, 118(5), Article 5.
    6. Haufe, C. N., Nigl, D., & Blandini, L. (2023). Investigations On The Load-bearing Behaviour Of Continuous Functionally Graded Concrete Beams: Vol. Proceedings of the International fib Symposium on the Conceptual Design of Concrete Structures held in Oslo, Norway (F. I. du Béton – International Federation for Structural Concrete, Ed.). Fédération Internationale du Béton – International Federation for Structural Concrete.
  2. 2022

    1. Blandini, L. (2022). Lightweight and Sustainable Concrete Structures: The ILEK Research Strategy. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    2. Frost, D., Gericke, O., Di Bari, R., Balangé, L., Zhang, L., Blagojevic, B., Nigl, D., Haag, P., Blandini, L., Jünger, H. C., Kropp, C., Leistner, P., Sawodny, O., Schwieger, V., & Sobek, W. (2022). Holistic Quality Model and Assessment—Supporting Decision-Making towards Sustainable Construction Using the Design and Production of Graded Concrete Components as an Example. Sustainability, 14(18), Article 18.
    3. Gericke, O., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Rigid Implant Connections for Thin-Walled Concrete Beams. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
    4. Miller, O., Gericke, O., Nigl, D., Kovaleva, D., & Blandini, L. (2022). Simulation-Based Investigations of the Load-Bearing Behavior of Concrete Hollow Sphere Slabs Exposed to Fire. Fire, 5(6), Article 6.
    5. Nigl, D., Gericke, O., Blandini, L., & Sobek, W. (2022). Numerical investigations on the biaxial load-bearing behaviour of graded concrete slabs. Proceedings of the Fib International Congress 2022 in Oslo, Norway.
  3. 2021

    1. Yang, Y., Balangé, L., Gericke, O., Schmeer, D., Zhang, L., Sobek, W., & Schwieger, V. (2021). Monitoring of the Production Process of Graded Concrete Component Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing, 13(9), Article 9.


  1. 2020

    1. Alhamdani, I. A. H. (2020). Investigation of the web layout in thin-walled hollow core slabs made from carbon fibre reinforced concrete.
    2. Sahin, A. (2020). Investigations on transferring tensile forces out of thin-walled concrete components.
    3. Trunzer, P. (2020). Investigation on modular sand formwork for the waste-free production of concrete components.
    4. Vorholzer, M. (2020). Investigations of connections and supports of concrete slabs in multi-storey buildings with regard to resulting mass saving potentials.
    5. Yang, Y. (2020). Investigation for position determination of hollow sphere integrated in concrete components during component production.
    6. Zhang, H. (2020). Development of an implant for the optimised support of prefabricated slabs made of fibre-reinforced concrete.


  1. 2024

    1. Strahm, B., Haufe, C., & Blandini, L. (2024). Replication Data for: Investigations on the Fire Behavior of Functionally Graded Concrete Slabs with Mineral Hollow Spheres. DaRUS.
    2. Strahm, B., Haufe, C., & Blandini, L. (2024). Replication Data for: Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Shear Load-Bearing Behavior of Functionally Graded Concrete Components. DaRUS.
  2. 2023

    1. Teichmann, A., Strahm, B., Garrecht, H., & Blandini, L. (2023). Compressive strength measurement data. DaRUS.


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